The release of Magento 2 has drastically changed the way developers plan and write code for a website. Magento is providing a flawless eCommerce platform to thousands of merchants across the globe to easily rack their products to a wider audience. Magento 2 is in-line with the remarkable architecture the merchants are using since long.
The architectural design of Magento was created by developers make available a kind of source code that can easily be customized to business-specific needs. It is the beauty of architecture that allows developers and merchants to add modules and extend the functionality of a Magento eCommerce theme.
A majority of platforms requires modification of the core code for personalizing the end product, but Magento is far beyond the common problems. The addition of an option or functionality is made easier with the installation of a Magento plugins. For example, if you need to add structured snippets to your product pages, a simple installation of Magento rich snippets extension or a similar application can do the work. No need to alter the code and inject the additional product information separately to each landing page.
The architectural design benefits the sellers and administrators of eCommerce websites to easily customize, update, and add new features. Let us discuss some of the architectural models before commenting upon Magento’s make.
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MVC (Model View Controller) Model
MVC is a design application that splits the access of data through the model, differentiates the front end with the view, the business logic through a controller. This design pattern was introduced in the 1970s for separating the user interface from the model. In the result of MVC incorporation, it becomes easier to repair, maintain, and test an application. The core theme of the design pattern is the division of an application in three architectural aspects that includes the model, view, and controller.
The model symbolizes the business logic of an application through a set of classes. It may either be a data model or business model. A model also shows the way data is modified, changed, or manipulated.
The view is the user interface or the front end of an application. This includes UI components like jQuery, CSS, HTML, etc. It shows the data it gets from the controller of the application as an outcome information. View replicates the model with a user interface.
The controller is responsible for processing the requests an application gets from the front end. It fetches information from the end users through View, processes the data through Model, and then transcends it back to the front end (view). It works like a bridge between the model and the view.
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Model View ViewModel (MVVM) System
MVVM is an architectural pattern utilized in programming and software development. The system works on a two-way data binding mechanism that is between View and ViewModel. This simplifies automating the changes within the ViewModel to display it in the View.
MVVM has the Model and View, just like the way these are present in MVC, but the controllers are replaced with ViewModel.
Magento 2 is a Model View ViewModel System and no more a design structured by MVC. The MVC model was incorporated in the previous version and seems to be quite similar to MVVM, but MVVM is a way more rich in dividing the View and Model in an application.
MVVM has three layers that include Model, View, and ViewModel. The business logic of an extension or application is represented as Model, whereas front-end is represented by the View. Just like the way Controllers serve as a mediator in an MVC model, the ViewModel bridges the gap between the Model and View in an MVVM system.
An extension developed for Magento 2 is said to consist the basic design elements that are discussed above. Whereas, the role of controllers is not fully removed from Magento 2 as it is made responsible for managing the user flow that includes communicating the system about users’ requests.
Let me explain the same with the help of an example. For the sake of an example, you can try setting up a new URL and creating a phtml template for it. When you request a new URL in Magento 2, like http://magento.abc.com/hi/friend the MVVM system will send the request to a controller to process it just like the way it is done in MVC. But, there is a major difference in the responsibility of the controller in MVVM. It is held responsible for
Setting up an example URL will help you notice that not a single variable gets mentioned in the View because each View component is held responsible to derive data or information itself from the model layer, object, or an external source. The MVVM makes Magento split an HTML page into multiple sections that are called as containers. These containers possess blocks that are connected through a tree-like structure. The blocks further include a phtml template file.
The Magento block object serves as a ViewModel if you speak specifically about the MVVM system. The object block is capable of scanning and reading the business models, user requests, acquiring data from external system, etc. the template file is termed as View that solely collaborates with the block object that is the View Model
Magento 2 has rightly taken the decision of moving to the Model View ViewModel system as it was a need of the hour. The MVVM model goes a step ahead in partitioning the template logic from the business logic. The system is surely speculated to facilitate merchants and the end users, whereas developers may find it difficult initially to cope up coding an extension for a website that is powered by Magento 2 and the MVVM system.